Wicca 1 (French Edition)
Take particular note of the Order of Woodcraft Chivalry who splintered into a number of groups, some of them developing unique rituals and activities of their own. It is in the very same New Forest that Gerald Gardner lived in for a few years in the late s. Wicca was not a revival of an old religion, it was yet another ritualistic secret society; albeit one with a great amount of effort put into it by its helmsman, who had himself already moved amongst occult and magical groups of the era for some time.
It is easy to see, in the absence of its purported history, that Wicca was a gradual invention. In the s, News coverage of Wicca was quite fair - some ridiculed and opposed it 84 , but many simply described it more or less fairly. This attitude, it must be stressed again, was relatively rare among journalists of the time. The newspaper had treated witchcraft only in passing after its big attempt to scaremonger in - until , when it printed [a few more balanced articles].
The names and addresses of the witches chosen as targets were printed along with their photographs, and the purpose next to that of increasing sales of the newspaper was clearly to ruin their public reputations and so their lives. As a result of this horrible and ignorant campaign lives were destroyed. For example authorities took away one set of parents' daughter for a long period of three years in order to safeguard her against involvement in rituals which, of course, was out of the question.
Real suffering resulted from the irresponsible sensationalist reporting of the News of the World , and, academics have noted that "most people's prejudices [towards Paganism] are based on misrepresentation by the media" At the end of the s, after the decade of ill-informed and hot-tempered sensationalism, Rupert Murdoch bought the paper in and added it to his empire, however, he did not have reform in mind. Its poor reporting continued, but with the backing of a large, rich and experience media empire behind it.
Thankfully, the paper was closed in amidst scandals of its own - the large-scale phone-hacking of celebrities' phones. The bitter irony is that Wicca has turned out to be one of the most peaceable, conscientious and responsible new religious movements, with a record so much cleaner than the 'traditional' religions that the News of the World was no doubt much more in favour of. References: What's this? Originally published A hardback book.
Bloom, W. Published by Rider, London, UK. Bowman, Marion Contemporary Celtic Spirituality. Pearson, Joanne , Ed. A paperback book. Published by Lionheart Books. Published for Transedition Limited and Fernleigh Books. Briggs, R.
Wicca - The Rise of a Western Mystery Religion Based on Witchcraft
Chapman, M. In Bowman P Clarke, Peter B. Peter B. Current version published by Thorsons. Eliade, Mircea , Ed. The Encyclopedia of Religion. Eliade is editor-in-chief. Entries are alphabetical, so, no page numbers are given in references, just article titles.
Restaurant Wicca, Laulasmaa
Originally published in UK in by Stoughton. Gardner, Martin. Died May 22 aged Originally published by G. Putnam's Sons as " In the Name of Science ". Current version published by Dover Publications, Inc. Harrington, M. Bowman and G. Clarke 6. Hume, L. Published by Melbourne University Press, Australia. Published by Blackwell, Oxford, UK. Jones, Prudence Pagan Theologies.
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Barker ed. MacGregor, Neil. Director of the British Museum. Aired on BBC Radio 4. Book Review. Mumm, Susan What it meant and what is means: feminism, religion and interpretation , chapter 3 of " Religion and Social Transformations " by D. Herbert Weekly news letter. See: " Secularism " by Vexen Crabtree Pagan Federation, the Witchcraft Information Pack. Accessed online at www. This document is about witchcraft in general, and not just Wicca, although it is a great read as a quick introduction to "Traditional Witchcraft", which means, the type of Witchcraft invented by those who did not wish to join the Gardnerian or Alexandrian Wicca.
Partridge, Christopher , Ed.
- Der Augenjäger: Psychothriller (German Edition).
- Black Book (Japanese Edition).
- Etymology of Wicca - Wikipedia?
- Restaurant Wicca, Laulasmaa - Restaurant Reviews, Photos & Phone Number - TripAdvisor.
Encyclopedia of New Religions. Russell, J. First published Ruthven, Malise Fundamentalism.
Witches and Guns: The Intersection between Wicca and the Second Amendment
Stanton, Elizabeth C. An e-book. York, Michael New Age and Paganism. This site uses the HTF Disclaimer as linked here. Roots 1. Anti-consumerism and anti-materialism. Two of the most popular amongst NRMs are: Environmentalism is commonly proclaimed by all kinds of pagan, Celt, pseudo-Native and New-Age groups, and they attract many people who are similarly passionate about protecting the planet. Features 2.
Also see: What Causes Religion and Superstitions? Also see: Fundamentalism and Literalism in World Religions. Social Media. Links: Pages on Wicca , Other Religions. Not defined.
The witches involved passed on secret, ancient wisdom, that was normally to do with healing, botany, magic and other esoteric and occult knowledge. Modern Wicca, they held, is a modern revitalizing of this ancient religion complete with occasional pseudo-archaic English usage , and this historical story was once widely adopted amongst neo-Pagans of most kinds, not just by early Wiccans 73 and it still is believed by some pagans today But extensive and careful research has now found these ideas to be false 75 and based on the evidence, historians are now sure that our modern rituals and pagan religions are modern inventions 72 , The Director of the British Museum, Neil MacGregor explains that the archaeological evidence for a universal mother-goddess had proven to be inadequate - most sites have no sign of religion, or of motherly figurines, and most decorative and non-functional artefacts are concerned with sex - with the sex act itself, especially phallic symbols and depictions of human sex Briggs 78 and "any links between Wicca and the Great Witch Hunt of early modern Europe, for example, are now seen in terms of self-identification rather than as historical facts" according to Joanne Pearson The earliest comprehensive historical investigations have been conducted by the academic Ronald Hutton, an expert in the relevant prime sources.
Wicca was at risk of falling into fundamentalism: Would Wiccans accept these historical facts, or would they disregard the evidence and descend into dogma and ignorance?
Thankfully, influential historians such as Prof. Ronald Hutton became well respected, honoured and trusted within Pagan and Wiccan communities, for his honest and clear presentation of the historical facts. Given that Wicca is not the result of a hidden religion resurfacing, then, where did Wicca come from? Where did Gerald Gardner and Alexander Sander get their ideas from, and why were they successful?
There is one particular excerpt I wish to take from his work on this question; in this case, pointing out that British society had seen a flourishing of secret societies, overly serious fraternities and insurance cults, and that even some ordinary trades guilds were in the process of adopting ritualistic and dressed-up drama in their meetings. In other words, in context , Wicca did not arise out of a cultural vacuum. Freemasonry though now generally lacking a genuine occult content was found even in small country towns, and had quite a high public profile; at Melrose in the Scottish Lowlands, for example, the local lodge paraded through the streets carrying torches every Midsummer's Eve.
All its branches preserved rituals of initiation and celebration which had a quasi-magical character, and Masons referred to the traditions collectively as 'the Craft'. Then there were Friendly Societies or Benefit Clubs, rudimentary insurance societies to provide members with sick pay, unemployment benefits and a decent funeral. These sprang up in both town and country in the early-nineteenth century, flourished until its end, and incorporated ceremonies loosely modelled upon those of Freemasons.
They could be very dramatic; one initiation rite of the Oddfellows, for example, involved leading the newcomer blindfolded into a circle of members and tearing off the blindfold to reveal that a sword was pointed at this chest. He then had to take the oath of secrecy and fidelity to the society.
It is worth bearing in mind through all this that what he was actually supposed to be doing was buying an insurance policy! Membership of these groups was often linked to a particular trade or 'craft', and meanwhile the old-style trade guilds or 'crafts' still survived in many towns. Some adopted the trappings of the quasi-ceremonial societies; in Shrewsbury in , a trade guild bought up a job-lot of Masonic regalia for its meetings in order to add dignity and excitement to them.
Such groups continued to proliferate into the early twentieth century. Some were drinking clubs in which the rites were largely humorous, such as the Royal Antediluvian Order of Buffaloes. Others were much more serious. One of the most important was the Order of Woodcraft Chivalry [ Its leaders were called the Witan, Anglo-Saxon for 'wise'; and so its practices were 'the craft of the wise'.
In , the Order went into schism, and split into a number of different groups, meeting at different places in the New Forest in subsequent years and developing their own rituals.